Pain & Analgesia

Models of Visceral Pain

Visceral pain, especially in the abdominal region, is a common type of pain in clinic. Its chronic form may be associated with multiple disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and pancreatitis. Currently, the clinical management of visceral pain is largely inadequate.

Animal Models of Visceral Pain

Greentech Bioscience offers acetic acid induced writhing test for preclinical efficacy testing. Acetic acid induced visceral pain in rodents is a well established experimental model of abdominal pain through intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid, leading to writhing responses: arching of the back, contraction of abdominal musculature and extension of hind limbs. In the acetic acid induced writhing test, there is a 3-5 min latent period after acetic acid injection. The pain is measured as the number of writhes, which is counted for 30 minutes after induction. The acetic acid induced writhing model, characterized by simplicity and prominent writhing response, is a widely used model of abdominal pain for assessing peripheral analgesic activity.

Animal Species

Mice, rats

Clinical Assessment

The number of writhing responses in the latent period and 30 minutes after induction


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