Pain & Analgesia

Pain & Analgesia

Pain is a highly important health problem. Current’s therapies for pain is limited by both adverse side effects and lack of efficacy. Pain is not a unitary phenomenon, involving multiple etiologies and different pathophysiologies. Greentech Bioscience offers a number of animal models of pain to better understand pain from a variety of disease states and develop effective therapies.

Our Animal Models of Pain


Animal Models


Clinical Assessment

Postoperative pain

Rat plantar incision model


(1) Mechanical hyperalgesia

(2) Hot/cold plate

Porcine incisional pain model


Mechanical hyperalgesia

Inflammatory pain

Formalin-induced   inflammatory pain model

Mice, rats

(1)  Spontaneous pain

(2)  Behavioral tests: mechanical hyperalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia, incapacitance test

Capsaicin-induced   inflammatory pain model

CFA-induced inflammatory pain model

Osteoarthritis pain

MIA induced osteoarthritis pain model

Mice, rats, rabbits

(1) Behavioral tests: mechanical hyperalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia, gait analysis, incapacitance test

(2) Optional indexes: histopathology, micro-CT



Neuropathic pain

Paclitaxel-induced   neuropathic pain model


(1) Abnormal behaviors

(2) Behavioral tests: mechanical   threshold and thermal threshold

(3) 5-HT and NO levels

STZ induced diabetic neuropathic pain model

Mice, rats

Peripheral nerve injury: CCI, PSL, SNI



NTG-induced migraine

Mice, rats

(1)  Survival, food/water intake

(2)  Oral mucosal injury score

(3)  Histopathology

Capsaicin induced dermal blood flow

Rats, NHPs

Skin blood flow (DBF)

Cancer induced bone pain

Tumor inoculation into bone marrow cavity


Behavioral tests: mechanical threshold, paw withdrawal threshold, incapacitance test

Visceral pain

Acetic acid induced writhing

Mice, rats

Writhing frequency

Pain Assessment Platform

Greentech Bioscience developed a comprehensive pain assessment platform which includes multiple motor and sensory evaluation devices such as Von Frey filaments, Tail-Flick test, incapacitance test, Hargreaves test, gait analysis, RotaRod test, treadmills, hot/cold plate, TopScan behavior tracking, etc.

The pain assessment platform at Greentech Bioscience.png

Figure 1. The pain assessment platform at Greentech Bioscience.                  


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Mogil JS.Animal models of pain: progress and challenges.[J].Nat Rev Neurosci,2009,4:283-94.