Greentech Bioscience offers left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation models, coronary occlusion models, and isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) models for efficacy testing of novel treatments.
Induction: left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation
Species: rats, pigs, dogs, non-human primates (NHPs)
Disease characteristics: mainly causing ischemia located in the anterior wall of the left ventricle
Advantages and disadvantages: LAD ligation is commonly used for establishing acute myocardial ischemia and infarction models, characterized by simple operations, optional occlusion site and controllable infarction range. The surgery with a high mortality rate has a high demand for technicians with excellent surgical skills and rich experience. However, LAD ligation models hardly mimic coronary atherosclerosis-induced myocardial infarction in human due to the lack of elevated lipid levels and coronary atherosclerotic lesions.
Induction: introduction of embolic agents into coronary artery by using Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) technique, resulting in LAD occlusion
Species: pigs, dogs, non-human primates (NHPs)
Advantages: animal models of coronary artery occlusion by using DSA technique are characterized by small surgical trauma, stable human disease characteristics, and flexible choice on which coronary artery to occlude. The balloon occlusion method allows for assessment of reperfusion injury after myocardial infarction.
Induction: ISO injection
Disease characteristics: ISO induced MI model well mimicks vasoconstriction process, mainly resulting in diffuse myocardial injuries, instead of focal ischemic myocardial damage.
Ultrasonic cardiogram: left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD), left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVESD), left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV), left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LPwT), ejection fraction (EF), cardiac output (CO), FS, SV, chamber dimensions and wall thickness, pulmonary artery pressure, etc.
Invasive hemodynamic monitoring: central venous pressure (CVP), right atrial pressure (RAP), right ventricular pressure (RVP), pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), cardiac output (CO)
Myocardial enzymogram and biochemical examination
Body weight, food intake, excretion
Blood and tissue collection
Imaging examinations such as MRI
Coronary angiography (for large animals)
Figure 1. Endovascular intervention and thoracotomy.
Figure 2. Myocardial infarction model-endovascular intervention method; Balloon occlusion VS gelatin sponge.
Figure 3. Myocardial ischemia-induced ventricular remodeling: left ventricular enlargement and left ventricular wall thickening; Ischemic mitral regurgitation: stable midsystolic mitral regurgitation until 8 weeks post surgery.
Figure 4. Canine models of rapid pacing-induced heart failure exhibit cardiac function changes and pathological ECG.
Figure 5. Evaluation of * drug in NHP models of rapid pacing-induced heart failure (color Doppler ultrasound examination) .
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